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Development Economics

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The Nature of Economic Growth and Development

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Economic Growth: this is generally seen as a growth in real GDP or real incomes. It is a result of increasing the quantity or quality of our factors of production.

Economic Development: this is seen as an increase in living standards, which relies on a variety of measures and is calculated in different ways, such as the HDI. Economic growth can be used to increase economic development.

LEDCs: when using this term (Less Economically Developed Country), we generally are classing any country that is not in the High Income Bracket according to studies undertaken by the World Bank. The degree obviously thus varies greatly.


Table of Incomes according to World Bank Atlas Method

Low-income economies ($1,025 or less)

Afghanistan Gambia, The Mozambique
Bangladesh Guinea Myanmar
Benin Guinea-Bisau Nepal
Burkina Faso Haiti Niger
Burundi Kenya Rwanda
Cambodia Korea, Dem Rep. Sierra Leone
Central African Republic Kyrgyz Republic Somalia
Chad Liberia Tajikistan
Comoros Madagascar Tanzania
Congo, Dem. Rep Malawi Togo
Eritrea Mali Uganda
Ethiopia Mauritania Zimbabwe

Lower-middle-income economies ($1,026 to $4,035)

Albania Indonesia Samoa
Armenia India São Tomé and Principe
Belize   Iraq


Bhutan Kiribati Solomon Islands
Bolivia Kosovo   South Sudan
Cameroon Lao PDR Sri Lanka
Cape Verde Lesotho Sudan
Congo, Rep. Marshall Islands Swaziland
Côte d'Ivoire Micronesia, Fed. Sts. Syrian Arab Republic
Djibouti Moldova Timor-Leste
Egypt, Arab Rep. Mongolia Tonga
El Salvador Morocco Ukraine
Fiji Nicaragua


Georgia Nigeria   Vanuatu
Ghana Pakistan   Vietnam
Guatemala Papua New Guinea   West Bank and Gaza
Guyana Paraguay Yemen, Rep. 
Honduras Philippines Zambia

Upper-middle-income economies ($4,036 to $12,475)


Ecuador Palau
Algeria Gabon Panama
American Samoa Grenada Peru  

Antigua and Barbuda 

Iran, Islamic Rep.  Romania


Russian Federation


Jordan Serbia
Belarus Kazakhstan Seychelles
Bosnia and Herzegovina Latvia South Africa
Botswana Lebanon St. Lucia
Brazil Libya St. Vincent and the Grenadines
Bulgaria Lithuania Suriname
Chile Macedonia, FYR   Thailand
China Malaysia Tunisia
Colombia Maldives Turkey
Costa Rica Mauritius Turkmenistan
Cuba Mexico Tuvalu
Dominica Montenegro Uruguay
Dominican Republic   Namibia Venezuela, RB

High-income economies ($12,476 or more)

Andorra Germany Oman
Aruba Greece Poland
Australia Greenland


Austria Guam Puerto Rico
Bahamas, The Hong Kong SAR, China Qatar
Bahrain Hungary San Marino
Barbados Iceland Saudi Arabia
Belgium Ireland Singapore
Bermuda Isle of Man Sint Maarten
Brunei Darussalam Israel Slovak Republic
Canada Italy Slovenia
Cayman Islands Japan Spain
Channel Islands Korea, Rep. St. Kitts and Nevis
Croatia  Kuwait St. Martin


Cyprus Luxembourg Switzerland
Czech Republic Macao SAR, China

Trinidad and Tobago 

Denmark Malta Turks and Caicos Islands
Estonia Monaco United Arab Emirates
Equatorial Guinea Netherlands United Kingdom
Faeroe Islands New Caledonia United States
Finland New Zealand Virgin Islands (U.S.)
France Northern Mariana Islands  
French Polynesia Norway  

All data taken from


Sources of Economic Growth

IB economics factors of production

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IB economics economic growth

Land - increases in natural resources; anything in or on the earth and sea

Labour - increasing the human resources both physically and mentally.

Capital - this usually refers to any goods required to create other goods. As they are usually tangible, we can rename capital as 'physical capital'. However, there are other types of capital, which correspond to different factors of production:

  • Human Capital - affects labour. If we invest in human capital then we are investing in goods that help our labourers become more productive; such as schools and hospitals, clean water supplies etc.

  • Natural Capital - affects land. If we invest in natural capital then we are investing in goods or services that help the land become more fertile or bear more fruit. Investments in farming techniques, renewable energy or fishing rights are thus investments in natural capital.

Capital is seen as a key cornerstone of economic growth as it can affect all factors of production, thus causing economic growth to mushroom.

Sources of Economic Growth and Development

  • Physical Capital- increasing our physical capital is known as increased stock of capital. Improving it, however is known as embodying physical capital. For example, increasing the amount of harvesters would be increasing the stock of capital, but harnessing new technology onto these harvesters would be to say that they have been embodied with new technology.

    However, it is important to understand that developed and developing countries have different focus's when deciding what type of physical capital to purchase. This is because:

    Developing countries are Labour Intensive.They thus require capital that makes best use of their abundant workforces. This creates much more employment.
    Developed countries are Capital Intensive. They thus require capital that makes best use of the skill-sets and relatively small workforce available.

    It is detrimental to a developing country to use capital intensive goods as they will create unemployment and potentially lead to less economic development. Therefore we can say that countries that adobt technologies suitable to their environment achieve the most economic growth - not countries that implement the latest or fastest technologies.
  • Labour - whilst having an increase in labour often leads to an increase in economic growth (France, for example saw a massive influx of immigration from North Africa in the 1970s which helped boost their economy), for developing countries there is often high unemployment and so the numbers are not so important. Instead, what is important is the quality of the available labour - or human capital.

    By investing in training, education, healthcare and school meals, developing countries can improve an already abundant resource. This will lead to improvements in productivity whilst also simulteaneously improving living standards - or economic development. Human capital is thus vital to improving growth and development.

  • Land- this is often seen as the most important road to growth by non-economists. For economists though, it is not that important. There is no proven direct link between economic growth and marketable assets. Though natural assets can provide growth, they often lead to over-reliance on one particular commodity. Less resource-rich countries have historically diversified quicker and thus achieved greater growth (e.g. Singapore). Furthermore, resources lead to conflict in many cases - for example in DR Congo. Commodities also often face long-term deteriorating terms of trade.

  • Institutional Changes- these can be seen as anything that helps facilitate the growth of land, labour (human capital) or capital. They include:
    a) Education
    b) Healthcare
    c) Research and Development
Relationship betweeen economic growth and economic development

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Characteristics of LEDCs

Common Characteristics of LEDC's

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 IB economics characteristics of LEDCs

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LEDC's are very varied in their appearance, but when using the term we can identify several indicators.

  • Low Levels of GDP per capita - owing to the lack of human and physical capital, LEDC's often have a low level of output. 30% of youth are unemployed accross these countries, whilst the UN also notes that low income countries receive $700 per capita whilst middle income countries receive from $700 to $8,000 per capita. These low levels of GDP often result in the Poverty Trap, discussed later. 
  • High levels of poverty - poverty can be seperated into 'absolute' and 'relative'. Absolute Poverty refers to those who do not have enough money to meet their basic survival needs, whilst Relative Poverty occurs when people are worse of compared to the average person in their country.

    According to the World Bank 1.2 billion people lived in extreme poverty below $1.25 a day in 2008 (22 percent of the population in the developing world).

    Three quaters of these resided in South Asia (571 million) and Sub-Saharan Africa (396 million). Another 284 million lived in East Asia, and less than 50 million in Latin America and the Caribbean, Middle East and North Africa, and Eastern Europe and Central Asia combined. By contrast, in 1981, 1.94 billion people (52 percent of the population) lived in extreme poverty. (source:
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  • Relatively large agricultural sectors - 70% of world’s poor live in agricultural sector. The agricultural sector is so important that it contributes to 20% of GDP for LEDC's - a problem given the volatility and falling terms of trade for these products. Much of the sectors are dominated by subsistance farming, which contributes little to GDP and often uses poor capital. More than 50% of LEDCs' population are involved in primary production: mining is often the focus

  • Large urban informal sectors - the informal sector of the economy is the part that is not tax or regulated. It does not figure in official GDP/GNP figures. According to the ILO,  informal employment makes up 48% of non-agricultural employment in North Africa, 51% in Latin America, 65% in Asia, and 72% in Sub Saharan AfricaIf agricultural employment is included, the percentages rises, in some countries like India and many sub-Saharan African countries beyond 90%. Estimates for developed countries are around 15% - the informal sector in Indonesia in 2004 accounted for 64 per cent of the total employment.

  • Large birth rates -There are about 144 developing economies (LEDCs) in the world, of which 83 have fewer than 5 million people. Three quaters of the world's population live in developing countries.

    Whilst death rates have also traditionally been very high in LEDC's, these are starting to fall owing to improved medical facilities and access to disease-preventing drugs. However, this has caused populations to continue to increase.

    High population rates have also led to a large dependancy ratio amongst LEDCs. The ratio of children below the age of 15 years is 40%, while it is around 20of population in case of MEDCs. This creates a dependancy burden which leaves a large proportion of the population dependant on a small workforce. For example, in 1997, 41% of the population of Pakistan was below 15 years of age.

The Poverty Trap

We have already identified the different ways in which economic growth could be achieved. However, developing countries often are prevented from achieving this: Why? Many of the reasons lie with the poverty trap. This shows us that the most significant cause of poverty... is poverty.

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How LEDCs differ enormously from one another

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  • Resource Endowments - different countries are given different 'gifts of nature' or resource endowments. For example, Congo is blessed with a rich variety of natural resources, whilst Yemen does not have such assets. The Gulf countries are full of oil, whilst the Horn of Africa is notoriously barren.

    Human resources also vary greatly; different socio-political outlooks determine attitudes toward work and productivity, for example. India has a very strong caste system which acts as a barrier to growth, whilst China has a very strong work-ethic. Development thus varies accordingly.

  • Climate - some countries face very fertile climates where a variety of crops will grow, whilst others do not. Bangladesh faces continuous flooding which disrupts crop growth, for example, whilst Costa Rica has abundant fertile soil on its volcanic slopes. The harsh sun of the Gulf has led to many watering projects - Saudi Arabia generates 50% of its water through desalination.

    Climate can also affect labour; it is very hard to work in freezing cold or burning hot, whilst much easier in temperate climates.

  • History - many developing countries were subject to colonialisation, which has had different impacts. In British colonies, many effective structures - including postal and administration structures were set up, whilst Belgium was a notoriously harsh colonizer, that left little infrastructure when leaving its colonies. The impact of colonisation has also been blamed for the many regional conflicts caused by collecting too ethnically opposed peoples into one area. Another example could be Rwanda, which led to civil war in 1994. On the other hand, culturally homogenous countries - such as South Korea and Taiwan have experienced rapid growth.

  • Political Systems - many developing countries have complicated political systems that either do not truly reprsent that true interests of their populations, or hinder growth in some way. Pakistan is notoriously beaurocratic (a hangover from colonialism), whilst in the Gulf States, nothing gets done without Sheikh approval. Latin America has very powerfully connected families, whilst South Africa has numerous tribal groups as well as black-white divisions to contend with. This makes decision-making and macroeconomic choices very hard to push through and implement as too many groups have too many interests.

  • Political Stability -the degree of stability can contribute greatly towards growth or not. The Ivory Coast was seen as a real growth area until its civil war in 2002; after this investment was pulled out and both growth and development faltered. Stable countries - such as Brunei or Costa Rica, see greater investment as investers are not woried about losing their money.
  • Case Study 1
  • Case Study 2
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Agriculture picture courtesy of Stoonn, @
African woman + African Children picture courtesy of  africa,  @  
Population picture courtesty of cooldesign,

International Development Goals
Millenium Development Goals

The Millenium Development Goals (MDGs)

Developed by the United Nations, these are targets set for 2015 which seek to increase welfare and economic development globally through a variety of ways. Targets include:

  1. Eradicating Extreme Poverty and Hunger
    • Half the number of people on less than $1.25 from 1990-2015
    • Achieve full employment for all, including women
    • Halve the number of starving people from 1990-2015
  2. Achieving Universal Primary Education
  3. Promoting Gendar Equality and Woman Empowerment
    • Achieve gendar parity in all schools by 2015
  4. Reducing Child Mortality
    • Reduce by 2/3 the infant mortality rate for under 5s
  5. Improving Maternal Health
    • Reduce the maternal mortality ratio by 2/3
  6. Combatting HIV, AIDS, Malaria and disease
    • Halve and then eliminate AIDS
  7. Ensuring Environmental Sustainability
  8. Global Partnership and Development


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Single Indicators


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Gross Domestic Product per capita: the value of goods and services produced within a country in a given time frame, divided by its population.

Gross National Income per capita: This includes the personal consumption expenditure, the gross private investment, the government consumption expenditures, the net income from assets abroad and the gross exports of goods and services minus the gross imports of goods and services. However it deducts any indirect business tax.

The GNI is similar to the gross national product (GNP), without the inclusion of indirect business taxes.

GNI versus GDP


IB Economics measuring development GNI


By including business tax into GNI, economists can tell the true value of the goods and services being sent to a home country. Imagine a company works abroad and sells $10 000 worth of goods and services. This money is then sent home would be recorded on both GDP and GNI for the company's country. However, if business tax increased to 10% the next year, GDP would still remain at $10 000 whilst GNI would be $9 000. GNI thus gives a more accurate reflection of the true value of goods and services entering a country.

GDP and GNI for the Eurozone 2008

   Year Latest data
GDP (current US$) 2008 13,542,635,337,404
GDP growth (annual %) 2008 0.4
GNI per capita, (current US$) 2008 38,477
GNI, (current US$) 2008 12,686,179,836,075

GDP per capita vs GDP per capita PPP

IB economics GDP per capita PPP

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GDP per capita: this is simply the value of goods and services produced within a country divided by its population.

GDP per capita @PPP exchange rates: Purchasing Power Parity attempts to eliminate price differences on GDP. To do this each country is shown as what their buying power can get with $1. It attempts to work in buying power to GDP.

For example if two countries had a GDP per capita of $1000 but goods cost twice as much in one country than another, then the first country is actually worse off. PPP attempts to eliminate the price differences in order to give a true reflection. To do this, PPP exchange rates are used - these are calculations that show a country's buying power equivalent to $1. MEDC's thus end up with lower GDP per capita when using PPP exchange rates, as goods and services in their countries tend to be lower.

Most Developed Countries' GDP per capita PPP

Rank Country Intl. $
1  Luxembourg 89,012
2  Qatar 88,314
 Macau 77,079
3  Singapore 60,688
4  Norway 60,405
5  Kuwait 54,283
6  Brunei 51,760

Most Developed Countries' nominal GDP per capita

Rank Country US $, 2011
1  Liechtenstein 171,465
2  Monaco 170,373
3  Luxembourg 114,232
4  Norway 98,081
5  Qatar 92,501
 Bermuda 91,780

Least Developed Countries GDP per capita PPP

Rank Country US $, 2011
177  Niger 727
178  Burundi 604
179  Eritrea 585
180  Liberia 585
181  Congo, Dem. Rep. 373

Least Developed Countries GDP per capita nominal

Rank Country US $, 2011
185  Sierra Leone 374
186  Malawi 371
187  Liberia 281
189  Congo, Democratic Republic of the 231
190  Somalia 139


Comparison of single health indicators between LEDCs and MEDCs

Improved sanitation facilities -  the percentage of the population with at least adequate access to excreta disposal facilities that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact with excreta. Improved facilities range from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets with a sewerage connection. To be effective, facilities must be correctly constructed and properly maintained. All figures 2010.

Singapore - 100%
United Kingdom - 100%
Costa Rica - 95%
Kenya 32%
Guinea - 18%

Infant mortality rate - number of child deaths (under age of 5) per 1000 people


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Comparison of single education indicators between LEDCs and MEDCs

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Total Adult Literacy Rate (%) - Adult (15+) literacy rate (%). Total is the percentage of the population age 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life. Generally, ‘literacy’ also encompasses ‘numeracy’, the ability to make simple arithmetic calculations. This indicator is calculated by dividing the number of literates aged 15 years and over by the corresponding age group population and multiplying the result by 100.

Singapore - 96%
Costa Rica - 96%
Kenya - 87%
Guinea - 41%

Public Spending on Education (% of GDP) - Public expenditure on education as % of GDP is the total public expenditure (current and capital) on education expressed as a percentage of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in a given year.

Singapore - 3.3% (2009)
United Kingdom - 5.6% (2009)
Iceland - 7.8% (2009)
Costa Rica - 6.3% (2009)
Guinea - 3.1% (2009)

In order of appearance: "Image courtesy of jscreationzs,/";:
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Composite Indicators

Composite Indicators


HDI IB economics

The Human Development Index

This is the most common composite index for welfare that is used. Used by the UN and created by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, who based his work on Amartya Sen. It has recently changed so that currently it includes three individual elements

  1. Life Expectancy at birth
  2. Education (average time spent in school)
  3. Income (GNI per capita using PPP exchange rates)

Each indicator is given 1/3 weighting, and using complex formulas give each a score out of 1 (with 1 being the best), and this is then divided by 3 to give a final score out of 1. Currently Norway tops the HDI with a score of 0.955

Reasons why HDI figures differ from GDP/GNI per capita figures

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IB economics GNI

Countries that have very high GDP per capita rankings don't always score highly on the HDI for the following reasons:

  • GDP (or GNI) is overstated
  • Education is < than GDP
  • Literacy is < than GDP
  • HDI calculates PPP GNI - for developing countries this will be higher thhan GDP owing to low prices in their economy

Some countries score higher on the HDI than on their GDP per capita rankings for the following reasons:

  • GDP (or GNI) is understated
  • Education is > than GDP
  • Literacy is > than GDP
  • HDI calculates PPP GNI - for developing countries this will be higher than GDP owing to low prices in their economy

Blackboard courtesy of  KROMKRATHOG, 
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Money courtesy of  Salvatore Vuono, 

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International Barriers to Growth

International barriers to growth

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1. Over-specialization on a narrow range of products

Although countries may have a comparative advantage in producing a certain product, over-specializing in this - or a narrow range - of products will result in low economic growth in the long run for LEDCs. This is because commodities often have a low value-added price, meaning that most of the profit made from a commodity comes when it is packaged and sold, not from the raw product (for example, coffee beans cost ___ whilst in the UK the average cost of a cup of coffee is 2 pounds)

Furthermore over specializing in a few goods means that a country's workforce does not create a variety of skills that can help generate new industries or services.

Finally, having only a small range of products means that should anything go wrong (a bad harvest, a new substitute, a fall in demand), then there is no plan B. LEDCs will subsequently be left with a larger deficit and no economic growth. This money cannot then be used in development.

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2. Price volatility of primary products

LEDCs often produce commodities, especially agricultural products, as these are labour-intensive and they often have a comparative advantage in producing them. However, primary products face the most uncertain, or fluctuating, prices owing to the weather and demand patterns.

Remember, commodities are price inelastic in demand so any changes in supply will have large fluctuations in price.

3. Inability to access international markets

Although trade blocs may be very beneficial for their members, they are often harmful for those on the outside, owing to their protectionist policies to non-members. As a result, large economic blocs like the EU result in higher prices from goods from LEDCs, making them less competitive compared to domestic competition, and causing less to be exported. This thus means that LEDCs firms cannot grow as they are unfairly discriminated against.

Furthermore LEDCs often have hostile relations with their neighbours and thus have high protectionist policies, thus scuppering the prospect of regional growth.

4. Inability to access international markets

Although trade blocs may be very beneficial for their members, they are often harmful for those on the outside, owing to their protectionist policies to non-members. As a result, large economic blocs like the EU result in higher prices from goods from LEDCs, making them less competitive compared to domestic competition, and causing less to be exported. This thus means that LEDCs firms cannot grow as they are unfairly discriminated against.

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4. Long-term changes in the terms of trade

There are three other things that result in long-term deteriorations in terms of trade for LEDCs.

a) Low YED -

b) Proectionism

c) Technology

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What type of countries do Multinationals (MNCs) invest in?

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  • Countries with low business tax rates
  • Countries with sufficient infrastructure
  • Countries with large or growing markets
  • Countries with stable macroeconomic and political conditions
  • Countries with cheap factors of production

Benefits of Multinationals

IB economics multinationals
  • Provide jobs
  • Improve skill-sets
  • Provide tax revenue
  • Knock-on effects for local industries
  • Investment

Drawbacks of Multinationals

  • Often pay low tax rates
  • Local jobs are often unskilled
  • Profits are sent home not spent domestically
  • Act as a barrier to entry for local businesses
  • Political leverage and environmental damage
  • Encourage unneccessary/harmful spending patterns.

photo courtesy of -  tiverylucky,

MNC: rajcreationzs

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Aid and Debt

Types of aid

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  • Developmental aid - money that is given by the donor country for the specific purpose of improving the infrastructure of the recipient's economy. This can take many forms such
    • Debt Relief - when one country forgives a portion - or all - of the debt it is owed by another country
    • Technical Assistance - the provision of skilled workers from one country to another in order to help train local workers or provide specific skills. e.g. Shell workers in Brunei.
    • Project Development - when money is given for specific large scale building works, such as Dams or energy projects.
  • Unconditional aid (grants) - money given from a government or organisation to another, with no strings attached. The money may be spent anywhere.
  • Conditional aid -

    • Tied Aid - when a receipient country must spend a portion of the aid it receives on goods and services from the donor country
  • Humanitarian aid - this is either goods and services or cash given in order to prevent or solve national emergencies or disasters.

Sources of aid

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  • Bilateral - from one country or organisation to another
  • Multilateral - from more than one country or organisation to another
  • ODA - Official Development Assistance
  • NGO - Non-governmental organisations. These are often small charities that aim to provide a specific service or good.

Why countries send aid

  • Humanitiarian reasons - often aid is needed in emergencies, such as after the Asian tsunami of 2004 or the food crisis in Sudan 2012
  • Political reasons - sometimes aid is sent as a political lever in order to foster friendly relations between countries
  • Historical reasons - countries that have a history of colonizing other countries may feel they owe a debt of responsibility to the colonized countries - India (even though it has its own space program) still receives aid from Britain.
  • Economic reasons - tied aid can act as an incentive for both economies to grow; Spain for example often uses tied aid to boost domestic industry. Furthermore, boosting markets abroad may offer long-term benefits economically.

Arguments for aid


  • Humanitarian Relief - there is a moral agument to sending aid, especially if there has been some sort of disaster. The Asian tsunami is an example of this.
  • Escape from poverty trap - aid is often the only way in which some sectors of society are able to break free of their situations - they can then use this to start a small firm.
  • Platform for economic growth and development - merit and public goods can be provided for countries that need it most. This helps create better skilled workers, jobs and tax revenue. It may also provide education which can prevent future poverty.

Arguments against aid



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  • Culture of dependancy - aid can sometimes lead to a mindset which relies on more aid in order to survive.
  • Prevents domestic industries from growing -
  • Corruption - a lot of aid can be lost on corrupt officials - Swaziland for example receives a lot of aid and has the highest AIDS rate in the world, yet its king has his own private jet...
  • Unpredictability of aid - if a government uses aid to spend on infrastructure and budgets a large amount for this but receives a much lower amount the next year, then any projects will suffer as a result. Being unable to predict how much aid a country will receive results in short-termism instead of long-term development projects.
  • Uncoordinated nature of aid - often, aid can be from various sources and these may conflict in what they offer. As a result, different projects which are very similar may occur, or conflicting projects may arise.

NGO benefits





  • Can provide specific local assistance - NGO's work with local communities and can therefore provide for the needs of a people, rather than just generic aims
  • Really help alliviate poverty trap - By working closely with individuals, they are able to offer advice and training which gives poorer sectorts of society the skills and know-how to beat the poverty trap
  • Flexible - NGOs can respond quicker to developments in technology or in communities' needs. For example, the use of mobile phone technology or the internet may impact the way they undertake their projects, whereas long-term government projects may not be able to factor these things in without great cost.
  • Greater community cohesion - by working with individuals, communties feel as though their specific needs are being met, and do not feel aliented by decision making that has occured outside of their influence.

NGO drawbacks


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  • Small size - their relatively small sizes often mean that long-term problems cannot be solved, as they do not have the money to finance expensive solutions. It also means they yield little political power.
  • Cannot provide overall picture - there are many NGOs that provide a range of services and goods, but they are not coordinated under one umbrella organisation - this means that conflicting aims/goods are made, or that no specific policy is adhered to.
  • Can conflict with government objectives - NGOs often conflict with cultural and political decisions - for example, provision of the use of condoms may counteract religious beliefs.
  • Unpredictable - NGOs are transient - they are often not long-term and usually dissapear once the founder/founding organisation leaves. This makes their effects much more short-term.

Aid  bplanet, hands njaj,NGO David Castillo Dominici, boat  bplanet

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