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Populations in Transition

Population Patterns

Population Momentum


  1. Video 1.1
  2. Summarise the main points that are made about population growth and momentum.
  3. Describe the geographical location of the countries that will continue to have the largest growth.
  4. Watch video 1.3 and explain why saving the poorest children is key to reducing population growth.
Video 1.1 Population Momentum
Video 1.2 Stable Populations
Video 1.3 Reducing the death rate

Population Change


  1. Go to this National Geographic page
  2. Take a screen clip of the map with the key (cmd+shift+4)
  3. Look at the next pages at take the information that you need to annotate the map with:
    • child mortality
    • fertility rates
    • life expectancy
    • natural increase
  4. Clip the row for each factor and paste into notes under the main map (see fig 1.2).
  5. Describe the pattern of population growth and change shown.
  6. Explain the pattern of population growth and change shown.

Demographic Transition Model

Demographic Transition Model
Figure 1: Demographic Transition Model (DTM)

Population Pyramids


Population Pyramids are a way of displaying the demographic make up of a country in a simple graph. They show the number of males and females in each age group.


Population pyramids are important because they allow governments to predict future population patterns and plan for the changes. They also give a good indication of the level of development in a country.

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Figure LEDC Population Pyramid


  1. Follow the links below for Spain & Kenya
  2. Kenya population pyramid
  3. Spain population pyramid
  4. Use the timeline to the left to watch the changes over time.
  5. Write a paragraph to describe the main changes in Spains pyramid
  6. Write a paragraph to describe the main changes in Kenyas pyramid.
  7. Take a screen grab of Figure 1.4, annotate it to highlight the key characteristics (wide base = high birth rate).
  8. Do the same for Figure 1.5.
  9. P.10 in textbook, take a picture of Fig 1.11, duplicate the image and crop one to show just China, and one to show just Italy. Under each image write a paragraph describing the trend shown, then another suggesting reasons for the trend.
  10. Define population doubling time and population projection.
  11. Homework: read this article about Bangladesh
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Figure MEDC Population Pyramid

Dependency Ratios

Video 1.8 Outsourcing in the Philippines

Youthful & Aging Populations

Ageing populations

Ageing populations occur when there are an increasing proportion of elderly people in a country, due to longer life expectancy and falling birth rates. It is a demographic issue that is facing most of the worlds developed countries

Ageing populations bring some significant challanges for economies, but they also bring benefits.


  1. Open this web page (Britains ageing population), watch the videos & read article on issues surrounding UKs aging population. make notes about:
    • the 2 trends causing it
    • The effects that it will have
    • The options for dealing with it
Video 1.6 Britains Ageing Population

Population Policies

Video 1.7 China & the One Child Policy

Antinatalist; China


  1. Read this Telegraph article, describe the population policy of China and why it was put in place.
  2. Read this Guardian article and this Huffington Post article:
    • Was the one child policy successful?
    • What is the 2 child policy and why has it been introduced?
    • Do you think China will need to adopt pro-natalist policies in the future? Explain your answer.
Video 1.8 Contraception & Family Planning

Antinatalist; Thailand


  1. Watch the video opposite.
  2. Describe the methods used/approaches taken to reduce the birth rate.
  3. How successful has this anti-natalist policy been?
  4. Identify ways in which this approach differs from Chinas population policy?
  5. Which approach do you think is most effective? Why?

Pronatalist; Japan


  1. Read this Guardian article & summarise the key points it makes about encouraging people to have more children.
  2. Read page 15/16 in your text book and make notes about Romania and its attempts to increase birth rates
  3. How successful has this anti-natalist policy been?
  4. Japan is a good example of a country with an ageing population, watch video 1.7, make notes about:
    • Reasons for Japans low birth rate
    • The problems an ageing population are creating
    • Approaches to solving the problem.
Video 1.9: No sex please, we┬┤re Japanese

Causes of Migrations

International Migrations

International Migration Flows


For each of the following continents, describe the main migration patterns both internally and externally.

  • Africa
  • Europe
  • Asia

Describe and explain the flow of remittances.

Video 1.9 International Migration

International Migration Case Study

Objective: Be able to describe a recent flow of international migration and explain the causes and consequences at source and destination.


Produce a case study about the recent/current large migration into Europe. You should break your case study into the the following sections:

  • Countries of origin & push factors
  • Countries of destination & pull factors
  • Problems that the migration is causing
  • How are the European countries dealing with immigration.
  • Here are a selection of resources to get you started and figures 1.6 to 1.8 (taken from the BBC article)

BBC: Migration crisis explained in graphics

BBC: Difficulty of a European solution to refugees

Guardian: Europes walls are going back up

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Figure 1.8
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Figure 1.8
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Figure 1.8

Internal Migrations

Rural to Urban Migration

The movement of people from the countryside into urban areas.

This process is happening most rapidly in developing countries as people seek employment in towns and cities. The worlds fastest growing cities are in developing countries and the majority of the the worlds megacities are also located there.

You should be able to explain the trend by referring to push and pull factors.

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Figure Push & Pull Factors

Case Study: China Internal Migration


  1. Watch video 1.8
  2. Make notes about:
    • the number of people migrating
    • The points of origin and destination of the migrants
    • The reasons why they are leaving the rural areas
    • Why they are attracted to the urban areas.
    • What are the impacts (social and economic) of rural to urban migration on the;
    • place of origin
    • place of destination
Video 1. China Internal Migration


This is the movement of people out of towns and cities to live in the surrounding rural areas.

This process is occurring mainly in developed countries as people commute into work from rural villages. The development of the internet has allowed increased remote working.

Decentralisation of many retail and office jobs has also led to people moving out of towns.

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Figure Counter-urbanisation

Gender Inequality


  1. Gender Equality podcast ( Listen & make notes.
  2. What is Gender? What is inequality?
  3. What is the Global Gender Gap Index?
  4. What forms does gender inequality take?
  5. Why does gender inequality exist?
  6. What are the impacts of gender inequality?

2014 Global Gender Gap Index country Rankings

Video 1.9 2014 Global Gender Gap Report
Content for Accordion Panel 5