IGCSE History Road to War title

Events in Hungary

  • Hungary was led by a cold-hearted ruler: Matyas Rakosi. Many Hungarians hated him.
  • In June 1956 students demonstrated against Rakosi.
  • Rakosi asked USSR for help, but didn’t get it; forced to resign
  • USSR installed new leader: Erno Gerro.
  • Demonstrations continue: Communist symbol cut out of Hungarian flag; statue of Stalin pulled down.
  • USSR allows new government to be formed under Imre Nagy
  • Several thousands of soldiers leave the Hungarian Army to join with Nagy.
  • Nagy begins to make reforms on free elections, courts, private ownership, leaving the Warsaw Pact and declares Hungary neutral to the Cold War.
  • Khrushchev is against intervention in Hungary but cannot accept neutrality.
  • USSR reverses co-operative stance and flood Hungary with tanks
  • Thousands of Hungarians were killed. 200 000 Hungarians flee as refugees. Nagy is executed.
  • Hungarians crushed in 2 weeks under ‘Operation Whirwind’
  • Khrushchev puts Janos Kadar in place as leader – he arrests 35 000 anti-Communists and executes 350. He does not leave the Warsaw Pact
  • Does the Hungarian Uprising show strengths or weaknesses of the USSR’s control over Eastern Europe?


  • Hungarian resistance was crushed in 2 weeks
  • Operation Whirlwind was a success
  • 35 000 anti-Communist protesters were imprisoned, 300 executed
  • Warsaw Pact remained intact
  • Weaknesses

  • The USSR had to enforce its will on Hungary – Khrushchev had to send in troops.
  • The people had specifically risen up against the USSR – sent out a message
  • Khruschev had to change his mind – seemed indecisive
  • IGCSE history; cold war; USSR; hungarian uprising, 1956

    1956 Hungarian revolt against USSR, public domain]

    IGCSE history; cold war; Hungarian uprising; 1956; USSR

    Soviet tanks in Hungary, 1956. CCASA 3.0 [source: Nagy Gyula Fortepan]

    Click on the video to see an overview of the Hungarian Uprising

    Inside the USSR: Case Study Czechoslovakia

    What happened in Czechoslovakia, 1968?

  • In 1945, the USSR had been Czechoslovakia's hero, liberating them from Nazi oppression. The Red Army was met with euphoria as the locals joined hands with their Russian liberators, and flushed the Nazis out of their country. By 1968, the liberators had become the oppressors. High prices, no economic freedom and heavy censorship had led to great satisfaction. The USSR had outstayed her welcome.
  • In 1967, Breznev had replaced Khushchev. The Czechoslovakian leader - Novotny - had followed Khrushchev's destalinisation policy but many were unhappy. Remember, Czehoslovakia had been one of the most industrialized eastern European countries before WW2. Soon, the Czech people began to demand more. When a bad harvest forced prices rocketing, Novotny lost support
  • Demonstrations began. Novotny, worried, appealed for help from the USSR. Breznev ignored him and allowed a new government to form under Alexander Dubček. Spurred on by the people, he launched the 'Action Programme' which proposed sweeping reforms in society and economy.
  • The 'Action Programme' proposed an introduction of market workings in the country, as well as liberalization of the press. Discontented press members jumped at the opportunity and began furiously pumping out anti-government rhetoric that had been contained for years. Poets, authors, illustrators all joined in... this became known as the Prague Spring.
  • The USSR began to get uneasy. Breznev remembered Hungary's attempt at freedom. Dubček was summoned to Moscow in an attempt to slow him down. He was quizzed about rumours of a new Czechoslovakian constitution, and Red Army tanks rolled to the border to show how serious the USSR was. Other East European leaders began squirming at the idea of widespread reform. Breznev decided to talk face to face with Dubček to sort it out.
  • At a meeting in July 1968 the two men sat down and came to an agreement on the length and depth of the reforms. Part of the idea of the talks was just to take Dubček out of Czechoslovakia and so slow the whole process down. Whilst Dubček felt progress was being made, the USSR was scheming behind his back
  • Unknown to him, Breznev had summoned the might of the Warsaw Pact member's armies, and the dark storm of war began to gather beyond Czechoslovakia's shores. The USSR then took the world by surprise, when on 21 August 1968, they launched a major miitary offensive against 'capitalist conspirators' in Czechoslovakia. Thousands of tanks moved accross the border and fighting erupted in the streets of Prague.
  • Breznev was using the Breznev Doctrine to full force
  • Unprepared, and ill-equipped the Czechs were soon crushed. Dubček ordered passive resistance, but was forced to sign a humiliating treaty, before being demoted to a manual labour job in the forestry department. His reforms were undone and the his people's suffering would go un-czeched (!)
  • IGCSE history, cold war, USSR, Czechoslovaki Uprising, 1968

    Crowd of protesters surrounding Soviet tanks during the first days of the invasion: [source: CCASA3.0Engramma.it]

    Click on the video to see an overview of the Prague Spring

    Inside the USSR: Case Study Poland

    What was Solidarity?

  • A Polish Trade Union created by Lech Walesa in 1980 which demanded and achieved 21 points (including more pay, benefits, freedom of religion and better prices)
  • Created at Gdansk shipyard
  • Came as a result of a terrible economic crisis in 1979—soaring meat and bread prices.
  • Used ‘civil resistance’ to achieve their aims from the government
  • Membership hit 9.5 million workers – 1/3 of all workers in Poland in 1981
  • What were the events in Poland?

  • Poland and the USSR had always had an uneasy relationship, dating back to the Nazi-Soviet Pact, and before. As one of the first countries to be encorporated into the USSR, it was also one of the first to strongly rebel.
  • Strange then, that an electrician - Lech Walesea - should be the figurehead of the uprising. In 1979 Poland faced severe shortages and spiralling food prices. Workers began to protest, starting at a shipyard in Gdansk. The workers formed together and formed a union, calling it Solidarity.
  • Joining with Catholic and anti-Communist forces, Solidarity soon gained enormous popularity - it had a third of all workers in Poland by 1981! With this came great power; the power to strike. Strikes occurred throughout Poland, and Solidarity became a symbol of resistance in the West. People wore Solidarity badges and Walesea became a cult hero.
  • The Union was forcing the government into increasing reforms. Moscow looked on unapprovingly and then moved to crush the movement. The USSR appointed Jaruzelski who immediately declared martial law and began a full-scale crack down in 1981. Censorship increased, strikers were fired upon and by 1982 it was banned.
  • From 1982 - 88 Solidarity moved underground, not daring to be open, and with Walesea imprisoned. It remained very popular though. It was with the arrival of Gorbachev's policies of perestroika and glasnost that Solidarity became live once more.
  • Once again, terrible food prices - inflation was rising at over 30% in 1988 - caused strikes in Gdansk again. This time the government decided to negotiate, and Walesea (freed from prison) represented the Polish people. He managed to secure the legalization of Solidarity and gain an elections promise. Without pressure from Moscow, the Communists were powerless to say no.
  • Unsurprisingly Solidarity swept to victory in the elections and Walesea became the first non-Communist Eastern European country
  • Why did the Polish government allow Solidarity to thrive?

  • Strike - The government could not afford for the workers to strike as most of Solidarity’s members came from influential industries – e.g. shipbuilding. Mass striking struck at Poland’s heart.
  • Non-political - It was not another political Party; 40% said they wanted to join it only to ‘make things better’, not to get rid of Communism.
  • Walesa - Lech Walesa was very careful to not involve the USSR. He got rid of radicals from solidarity. Was a popular working-man’s hero: just an electrician not a politician
  • Popularity - Despite banning all phone-calls in the Gdansk area, and enforcing censorship, news of the Union spread quickly, especially through use of illegal radio and songs like ‘Mury’!
  • Non-violence - The government was playing for time, getting ready to introduce martial law (rule by army). It hoped the movement would peter out and needed an excuse but Solidarity was non-violent. They did begin martial law shortly afterward.
  • The West - The West gave it a lot of support. From Raegan to Thatcher to the Pope to NATO it received messages of support. People in the West bought solidarity badges and stickers. CIA secretly funded it. USSR couldn’t be seen to be too anti-Solidarity.
  • Catholics - It had support of the Catholic Church. Though Communist countries were not supposed to be Catholic, the Poles were very religious, and even the Pope (John-Paul I) was Polish. He had previously written on solidarity in the document 'Solicitudo Rei Socialis'
  • Why did the Polish government clamp down on Solidarity in 1981?

  • It got too big - 9.1m members
  • It had become too political and was making political demands
  • There was economic chaos in Poland, including food shortages
  • The USSR had signalled it was ready to supply force
  • What were the consequences of Solidarity?

  • Martial Law under Jaruzelski
  • Imprisonment of Solidarity leaders, including Walesa
  • Outlawing of Solidarity
  • Rival Solidarity movement (Patriotic Movement for National Regeneration)
  • Clamp down on Catholic Church—priests imprisoned.
  • Continued economic collapse—high inflation
  • Underground Solidarity which reasserted itself upon break up on USSR—Walesa became first non-Communist President!
  • Continued disillusionment with Communism—time was ripe for Gorbachev
  • Click on the video to see an overview of Solidarity

    IGCSE history, cold war, containment, vietnam war

    [source: CCASA 4.0 Kruger]

    IGCSE history, cold war, Poland, Solidarity, lech walesa

    Lech Walesa, left, 1981 [source: Kongres Polonii Amerykańskiej wikimedia]

    IGCSE history, cold war, containment, vietnam war

    Civilians sort through the ruins of their homes in Cholon in the Vietnam War. Photo by Meyerson, Joel D. [Public Domain: Source: Good Free Photos

    Click on the video to see the impact of Solidarity
    Click on the video to see an overview of the collapse of the USSR

    Who was Gorbachev?

  • Grandson of a peasant who had his land taken away by Stalin
  • Had a degree in Law from Moscow University
  • Elder brother was killed fighting in WW2
  • Leader of USSR in 1985 – hailed as the great reformer
  • Won the Nobel Peace Prize 1990.
  • Was the only leader to have been born in Soviet rule
  • Why did Gorbachev try to change the Soviet Union? (PALE)

  • Plan B? – The USSR did not seem to have an alternative plan to their economy. People were no longer believing the slogans of the government. Under Stalin they had worked in fear or loyalty, now they did not care as there was nothing to work for.
  • Afghanistan – USSR was locked in a costly battle in Afghanistan, which it was not winning. It was costing lives and money. Military spending was 25% of FDP by 1980s.
  • Living Standards – these were at an all time low. Life expectancy was low, mainly because of alcoholism. Many Soviet goods did not work.
  • Economy – the economy was in chaos. It was spending far too much on the arms race. GDP falling by 3-5% in 1990!
  • How did Gorbachev change the Soviet Union?

  • Peristroika (restructuring) – introduced in 1987. Freed up the command economy and allowed market forces to play a part. Profit-incentive was resurrected.
  • Glasnost (openness) – this was the idea that foreign relations should get better. Withdrew Soviet forces from Afghanistan, emphasized international co-operation and responsibility, announced a new policy on eastern Europe which said they should be able to determine their own paths. Disbanded Warsaw Pact and COMECON. He met President Reagan 4 times too, discussing foreign policy and did not intervene when Bush invaded Iraq!
  • ‘Towards a Humane, Democratic Socialism’ - document which allowed for criticism of previous Communist governments.
  • How far was Gorbechev personally responsible for the collapse of the USSR?


  • Gorbachev explicitly allowed Eastern Europe to pursue its own path : Glasnost (openness) - this led to revival of previous feelings (Prague Spring etc). It encouraged reform in Czechoslovakia 1989, and East Germany 1989-90.
  • Gorbachev allowed Solidarity in Poland in 1990: this was a step in the direction of disintegration
  • He allowed people to practice their religion and even met the Pope – this went against the firm rule of Communism. Reversed Brezhnev doctrine in Afghanistan.
  • He introduced perestroika (restructuring) – this loosened the chains of the economy and people were allowed to make money
  • Alienated hardliners with his policies—they eventually stabbed him in the back with the coup of 1991.
  • NOT FAR:

  • Growth of Nationalism It was falling apart anyway (explain Hungary 1956, Czechoslovakia 1968, Berlin Wall 1961)
  • Gorbachev just provided the spark that lit the fire – his reforms acted as a catalyst – such as Romania and Bulgaria revolted in 1989 as a result
  • People were very unhappy – living standards were low and too much was spent on arms (25% of GNP by 1980s)
  • There was a lack of jobs, American farmers were 7 times more productive.
  • Raegan’s hardline policies pushed the USSR to the brink; he won the arms race and was on the offensive—helped Afghanistan beat USSR, called USSR ‘evil empire’...
  • Cold war, collapse of USSR, IGCSE History, Gorbechev, 1991

    “Signing the Agreement to eliminate the USSR and establish the Commonwealth of Independent States”, 8 Dec 1991President Leonid Kravchuk (second from left seated), Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Belarus Stanislav Shushkevich (third from left seated) and Russian President Boris Yeltsin (second from right seated) during the signing ceremony to eliminate the USSR and establish the Commonwealth of Independent States. Viskuly Government House in the Belorusian National Park "Belovezhskaya Forest". [source: RIA Novosti archive, image #848095

    How secure was the USSR's control over E.Europe?

    How did the USSR collapse?

  • Lithuania March 1990 - Lithuania is first to leave - USSR try sanctions and troops
  • Latvia: May 1990 - Latvia leave USSR. Soviets refuse to accept this
  • Georgia: April 1991 - Elections held, Communists crushed
  • Estonia: Aug 1991 - The 'Singing Revolution' sees 2m people hold hands - Soviets leave
  • Ukraine: Aug 1991 - Seeing the Soviet coup fail, Ukraine hurridly passed independence laws
  • Belarus: Aug '91 - Resentment grew in 1988 when mass graves were found. Declared indpendence during coup
  • Moldova, Azerbaijan, KyrgystanL Aug 1991 - Resulted in 'Black January' where the USSR tried to surpress Azerbaijan through force. Kyrgystan govt resigns after a coup
  • Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Armenia Turkmenistan: Sept/Oct 1991 - These countries jump on the bandwagon before it's too late!
  • Russia: June 12, 1991 - The failed coup against Gorbachev totally undermind him and elections were held. Boris Yeltsin won, and immediately took Russia out of the USSR. The centre folded.
  • With Russia gone, the USSR was over