Mt. St Helens--------------------Volcanic Eruption-------------------18th May 1980
Location: NW America, part of Cascades mountain range.
Cause: Destructive boundary (Juan de Fuca plate sub-ducting below N. American plate.
- Landslides of rock, ice & soil filled most of spirit lake.
- Pyroclastic flows killed vegetation and wildlife to the North.
- 61 people killed.
- Floodwaters washed away roads and railway bridges, electricity supplies were interrupted.
- Ash settled on towns , people in Yakima had to wear face masks to go outside.
Kobe----------------------------------Earthquake--------------------17th January 1995
Location: Southern Honshu, Japan.
Cause: Destructive boundary (Philippines plate sub-ducting under Eurasian plate).
- Measured 7.2 on Richter Scale & lasted 20 mins.
- 200 000 building collapsed.
1km of Hanshin Expressway (elevated main road) collapsed.
- Fires burned for days (broken gas pipes & wooden houses!!!).
- Severe traffic jams delayed emergency services.
- 5500 people killed.
- Factories closed (Mitsubishi & Panasonic).
Stricter building regulations & improved prediction technology.
Manufacturing------------------ Secondary Industry----------------------------Nissan
Location: Sunderland, N.E England.
- skilled labour force & high unemployment.
- Lots of flat land at a low cost (need land for factory, testing & storing cars).
- Transport links: A1 motorway linking to London. Close to port to export to Europe. Near Newcastle airport.
- Incentives: Government grants & tax reductions for first few years.
- Ancillary firms located close by.
High-tech Industry---------------Tertiary Industry---------------------M4 Corridor
Location: Along M4 motorway (London-Bristol), Southern England.
- Close to Heathrow (international airport) - import/export & travel.
- Large market close by (London).
- M4 is excellent road link to London, Oxford, Bristol.
- Close to Oxford University (bright graduates & research facilities).
- Attractive environment which attracts workers (Cotswolds, Chilterns).
- Proximity to similar industries for sharing ideas & integration.
Cause: Burning of fossil fuels & release of methane increasing thickness of greenhouse gas layer.
How it works:
Solar radiation passes through layer & heats the earth
Earth emits infra-red radiation which is trapped by the greenhouse layer
- Rise in average temperature of global atmosphere.
- Glaciers melting (polar & mountain); rising sea levels.
- Threats to coastal locations (Tuvalu in South Pacific - already being evacuated to New Zealand).
- Threats to species & ecosystems.
- Warmer oceans, possible more frequent & powerful storms (hurricanes).
- Alternatives to fossil fuels (renewable energies) & increased efficiency.
- Reducing deforestation & plant more trees (absorb the CO2).
- Schemes such as Carbon trading (allowances of CO2 emissions for countries which can be sold/bought).
- Internationally agreed quotas for countries & future reduction targets.
- Industry, transport and power generation burning fossil fuels: release Sulphur Dioxide & Nitrogen Oxides.
- These mix with water vapour in atmosphere to form: Nitric Acid & Sulphuric Acid.
- Kills trees/forests: N. Germany pine trees needles burnt, roots damaged.
- Acidifies Lakes: Scandinavia, kills fish.
- Corrodes buildings: Northern England
- Add lime to lakes.
- Fit filters to chimneys.
- Find alternative fuels/ materials for transport and industry.
- Increase efficiency.
Cause: Releasing CFCs from old fridges and aerosols.
- Depletes the ozone layer which lets more UV light in.
- Been thinned the most over the Antarctic and Australia.
Solutions: Reduce use of CFCs, alternative gases used in fridges and aerosols now.
Location: Greenwich Peninsular, London, UK
Cause: Old dock based industrial inner city area of London. Industry had closed, buildings were derelict & few job opportunities.
- Old industry cleared & a community created (housing, health & leisure centres, 2 schools, supermarket & cinema).
- O2 Dome built, major concert hall & exhibition centre.
- Aimed at being sustainable: recycled materials, energy saving houses, wind & solar power used in supermarket.
- Underground link (tube train), cycle paths & good bus links to area to reduce need for cars.
LEDC Urban Growth
Location: Cairo, Egypt
Cause: Rapid population growth –rural to urban migration. 13 + million people.
- Housing shortages, 80% of people living in self built shanty houses. People living in tombs (City of Dead).
- Traffic congestion & air pollution.
- Lack of jobs & jobs often poorly paid.
- Water pollution: ground water & the Nile.
- New towns being built outside Cairo to accommodate people & provide jobs (10th Ramadan City).
- Metro line (underground train) has been built, limited lines currently but 1 million commuters/day.
- Improved sewers and rubbish collection services.
- Large ring road built around the city.